where

You can use where clauses with the following queries:

It allows powerful filtering of your data.


Equal / Not Equal

await Band.select().where(
    Band.name == 'Pythonistas'
)
await Band.select().where(
    Band.name != 'Rustaceans'
)

Hint

With Boolean columns, some linters will complain if you write SomeTable.some_column == True (because it’s more Pythonic to do is True). To work around this, you can do SomeTable.some_column.eq(True). Likewise, with != you can use SomeTable.some_column.ne(True)


Greater than / less than

You can use the <, >, <=, >= operators, which work as you expect.

await Band.select().where(
    Band.popularity >= 100
)

like / ilike

The percentage operator is required to designate where the match should occur.

await Band.select().where(
    Band.name.like('Py%')  # Matches the start of the string
)

await Band.select().where(
    Band.name.like('%istas')  # Matches the end of the string
)

await Band.select().where(
    Band.name.like('%is%')  # Matches anywhere in the string
)

await Band.select().where(
    Band.name.like('Pythonistas')  # Matches the entire string
)

ilike is identical, except it’s Postgres specific and case insensitive.


not_like

Usage is the same as like excepts it excludes matching rows.

await Band.select().where(
    Band.name.not_like('Py%')
)

is_in / not_in

You can get all rows with a value contained in the list:

await Band.select().where(
    Band.name.is_in(['Pythonistas', 'Rustaceans'])
)

And all rows with a value not contained in the list:

await Band.select().where(
    Band.name.not_in(['Terrible Band', 'Awful Band'])
)

is_null / is_not_null

These queries work, but some linters will complain about doing a comparison with None:

# Fetch all bands with a manager
await Band.select().where(
    Band.manager != None
)

# Fetch all bands without a manager
await Band.select().where(
    Band.manager == None
)

To avoid the linter errors, you can use is_null and is_not_null instead.

# Fetch all bands with a manager
await Band.select().where(
    Band.manager.is_not_null()
)

# Fetch all bands without a manager
await Band.select().where(
    Band.manager.is_null()
)

Complex queries - and / or

You can make complex where queries using & for AND, and | for OR.

await Band.select().where(
    (Band.popularity >= 100) & (Band.popularity < 1000)
)

await Band.select().where(
    (Band.popularity >= 100) | (Band.name ==  'Pythonistas')
)

You can make really complex where clauses if you so choose - just be careful to include brackets in the correct place.

((b.popularity >= 100) & (b.manager.name ==  'Guido')) | (b.popularity > 1000)

Using multiple where clauses is equivalent to an AND.

# These are equivalent:
await Band.select().where(
    (Band.popularity >= 100) & (Band.popularity < 1000)
)

await Band.select().where(
    Band.popularity >= 100
).where(
    Band.popularity < 1000
)

Also, multiple arguments inside where clause is equivalent to an AND.

# These are equivalent:
await Band.select().where(
    (Band.popularity >= 100) & (Band.popularity < 1000)
)

await Band.select().where(
    Band.popularity >= 100, Band.popularity < 1000
)

Using And / Or directly

Rather than using the | and & characters, you can use the And and Or classes, which are what’s used under the hood.

from piccolo.columns.combination import And, Or

await Band.select().where(
    Or(
        And(Band.popularity >= 100, Band.popularity < 1000),
        Band.name == 'Pythonistas'
    )
)

WhereRaw

In certain situations you may want to have raw SQL in your where clause.

from piccolo.columns.combination import WhereRaw

await Band.select().where(
    WhereRaw("name = 'Pythonistas'")
)

It’s important to parameterise your SQL statements if the values come from an untrusted source, otherwise it could lead to a SQL injection attack.

from piccolo.columns.combination import WhereRaw

value = "Could be dangerous"

await Band.select().where(
    WhereRaw("name = {}", value)
)

WhereRaw can be combined into complex queries, just as you’d expect:

from piccolo.columns.combination import WhereRaw

await Band.select().where(
    WhereRaw("name = 'Pythonistas'") | (Band.popularity > 1000)
)